Communism in America

There seems to be a common belief that communism started in Russia. This belief is plainly incorrect, as will be shown in the following. The communist ideology actually started in France in the 1830-40’s. And was widely heard about, and even practiced by some, here in America.

The following historical references show the spread of communism in America. Which should open the eyes of everyone that is concerned for the welfare of our country. Not to mention the welfare of themselves and their posterity.

The first mention of communism in America:

The New-York Tribune, in their December 9, 1841 issue, on page 2 –

The reading of the Report of the Committee of the Chamber of Peers on the attempt to assassinate the sons of the King has commenced. Thirty-five persons are implicated in the conspiracy; but it is not expected that more than eight or ten will be brought to trial. They are all, with a single exception, of the working classes. In the trades to which they belong, the cabinet-makers appear to outnumber all the rest. M. Dupotet, the Editor of the Journal du Peuple, is the exception above referred to. Nearly all the conspirators appear to be persons of the lowest intelligence and influence, the readers of a villanous publication called the ‘Humanitaire.’ Considere, who was tried and acquitted in the affair of Darmos, is one of the number. He keeps a wineshop at Montruartre, which is much frequented by the Humanitarians and the Communists.

We then have the following from the New-York Daily Tribune on August 25, 1843, page 2:

Social Movement.–We learn from the Onondaga Standard that a company of Communists, or advocates of the doctrine that no individual has an exclusive right to any portion of the earth or its products, have made a contract for a tract of land near Skaneateles, in that County, of some four hundred acres, possessing very great natural advantages. The price is $15,000. Mr. John A. Collins of Boston–a true-hearted though errafish man–is at the head of this movement, though its officers are Quincy A. Johnson. President, U.H. Van Seest, Secretary, Joseph Savage, Treasurer. We bid these brave adventurers God speed on their enterprise, although we cannot but differ from them radically as to their Property doctrines. We presume if any odium can be got up against them it will be directed against Fourierism, though these people dissent altogether from that system. [This Community was organized at Syracuse, and we presume its officers may be addressed there.]

Then there is this unsigned article submitted anonymously, (although stated he(?) was a friend of John Hudson, who had paid all his expenses), to the Vermont Telegraph on September 20, 1843, page 2:

Lectured in New-York on Sundays. On the former of the two, the meeting was held at St. John’s Hall, occupied by a society calling themselves “One Mentions.” [They are communists. Have purchased 600 or 800 acres of wild land, in Pennsylvania, about 100 miles from New-York City. Have paid for land and commenced clearing it. Have 20 or 30 acres under way.] Had but one meeting. A good time.

We then have this ironic little piece of historical information from the New-York Daily Tribune March 19, 1844 issue, page 2. Which shows how the idea of communism spread into Russia:

The Augsburgh Gazette states that the doctrines of the French Communists were spreading in Poland, and that several person, convicted of entertaining them, had been banished to Siberia.

Followed by an article in the New-York Daily Tribune, April 23, 1844 issue – page 4, concerning a Lecture by a very famous American:

From ‘ The Dial’ for April.

THE YOUNG AMERICAN.

A Lecture read before the Merchantile Library Association,
Boston. Feb. 7th, 1844.

BY RALPH WALDO EMERSON.

[Continued.]

3. I pass in the third place to speak of the signs of that which is the sequel of trade.

It is in consequence of the revolution in the state of society wrought by trade, that Government in our times is beginning to wear so clumsy and cumbrous an appearance. We have already seen our way to shorter methods. The time is full of good signs. Some of them shall ripen to fruit. All this beneficent socialism is a friendly omen, and the swelling cry of voices for the education of the people, indicates that Government has other offices than those of bunker and executioner. Witness the new movements in the civilized world, the Communism of France, Germany, and Switzerland; the Trades’ Unions; the English League against the Corn Laws; and the whole Industrial Statistics, so called. In Paris, the blouse, the badge of the operative, has begun to make its appearance in the saloons. Witness too the spectacle of three Communities which have within a very short time sprung up within this Commonwealth, beside several others undertaken by citizens of Massachusetts within the territory of other States. These proceeded from a variety of motives, from an impatience of many usages in common life, from a wish for greater freedom than the manners and opinions of society permitted, but in great part from a feeling that the true offices of the State, the State had let fall to the ground; that in the scramble of parties for the public purse, the main duties of government were omitted,–the duty to instruct the ignorant, to supply the poor with work and with good guidance. These communists preferred the agricultural life as the most favorable condition for human culture; but they thought that the farm, as we manage it, did not satisfy the right ambition of man. The farmer, after sacrificing pleasure, taste, freedom, thought, love, to his work, turns out often a bankrupt, like the merchant. This result might well seem astounding. All this drudgery, from cockcrowing to starlight, for all these years, to end in mortgages and the auctioneer’s flag, and removing from bad to worse. It is time to have the thing looked into, [rest of sentence illegible due to crease in page]…

In The Radical, Bowling-Green, Pike County, Missouri, on May 18, 1844 Pg. 4 there was found:

A Society of Emigrants has been organized in Switzerland, in the Canton of Argau, who propose to found a colony in the State of Missouri, under the name of New Helvetia. From the regulations of this society, which is under the direction of M. Dietock, of Mulhouse, it appears to cherish the expectation of being able to put into practice the principles of the communists. [St. Louis Gaz.

And yet more ironic historical data from The Cadiz Sentinel, Cadiz, Harrison County, Ohio, November 6, 1844, page 1:

The Neuremberg Correspondent announces that the Russian Government has sent orders to the authorities at Warsaw, to be rigid in preventing the entry into Poland of emmissaries of the Communists, under the mask of being workmen, and the introduction of Communist books published in Paris, and translated into the Polish language.

And once more from the New-York Daily Tribune, January 1, 1846, page 1:

What a year it has been with us! Texas annexed, and more annexations in store; Slavery perpetuated, as the most striking new feature of these movements. Such are the fruits of American love of liberty! Mormons murdered and driven out, as an expression of American freedom of conscience. Cassius Clay’s paper expelled from Kentucky; that is American freedom of the press. And all these deeds defended on the true Russian grounds: “We (the stronger) know what you (the weaker) ought to do and be, and it shall be so.

Thus the Principles which it was supposed some ten years back had begun to regenerate the world, are left without a trophy for this past year, except in the spread of Rouge’s movement in Germany, and that of Associative and Communist principles, both here and in Europe, which, let the worldling deem as he will about their practicability, he cannot deny to be animated by faith in God and a desire for the good of Man. We must add to these the important symptoms of the spread of Peace Principles.

The following in the New-York Daily Tribune, on August 13, 1846 – page 2, has an article on someone that discovered the errors of communism early on. Although still retained the fundamental communist doctrine, (which was of course later perverted beyond all recognition):

John A. Collins–The Daytonian.

We have already chronicled the receipt of a new Whig Daily–The Daytonian–from Dayton, Ohio, but have never received the first number. We find its leading article, however, transferred to the columns of The Chronotype, and perceive that our old friend John A. Collins therein indicates his connection with it as Editor so plainly that we need not hesitate to give his name. Mr. Collins is known to thousands in this region as an Anti Slavery lecturer of the most ultra stamp–then a Socialist or Communist of the no-property school, and as the founder of a Community on this plan at Skaneateles in this State, wherein Religion. Government and Individual Property were utterly discarded. The Associationists, for holding that these were elements of a true Society, and as such to be retained, were regarded at Skaneateles as superficial Reformers, who left all the fundamental errors and evils of Society untouched. Our friend Collins went so far as to doubt if not absolutely deny the existence of an intelligent Creator of the Universe! He has come out of this temporary darkness, and enters upon his new career with the following frank exposition:

OURSELVES.

The ways of Providence are mysterious. Results are brought about, and changes produced, by causes beyond the ken of man. As we take a retrospect of our own course, we are filled with admiration for that Providence which holds and governs the destiny of all things. Up to 1837, are were a Whig. At that date we left the Whig party. We left all political institutions. We renounced our belief in the rightful existence of human governments. We regarded, them as at war with the laws of God, the teachings and spirit of Christianity, and the practices of the Apostles. Strongly imbued with feelings of sympathy for the poor, the afflicted and the oppressed, we espoused, most heartily, the cause of the Slave, the inebriate, and the toiling, laboring masses.–With a zeal and energy peculiar to ourselves, we pressed these questions upon others, for their consideration, approval, and adoption.

Time passed on, and we were recognised a confirmed skeptic. We cherished, as m the first days of our Christian love, a profound admiration and respect for the holy precepts and principles of the Saviour. It was with us, during the whole period we were left to grope in darkness, at all times, our highest ambition to reduce them to practice. While we clothed Nature with the Christian attributes, we denied the authority and divinity of their Author We worshiped at the shrine of Reason. We listened to her oracles. We were led astray. We disbelieved in a divine and special Providence, in a revelation of God to men. We forsook God, but, thanks to His name, He forsook not us. His hand supported us, and His right hand led us.

In process of time, we become fully imbued with the doctrine of a Community of Property. Faithful to our convictions, and determined at all hazards to follow them and to live the true life, we resolved, against the most urgent and solemn protests of our friends, at the sacrifice of our money, our health, our comfort and that of a feeble wife and many helpless children, to reduce them to practice. We had no more doubt of their truthfulness and practicability, of the rightfulness of our own course, than of our present existence. We secured a domain. We gathered a small multitude upon it. We established a Community upon the principles of a Community of goods; upon the no-government, or non-resistance principle, upon the largest liberty, upon the broadest principles of democratic equality. With a faithful and honest trial of nearly three years. We were compelled to renounce the principles we entertained, both in relation to governments and religion and society, as false in theory and pernicious in their practical tendencies.

They might, so far as governments are concerned, do very well if men were angels, and angels Gods; but human nature is too low, too selfish and too ignorant for relations so exalted.

With the same earnest desire to promote the great cause of virtue, equality, temperance, freedom and the brotherhood of mankind, we seek to cooperate with the two great institutions–the conservators of Man’s earthly and heavenly interests–Religion and Government–the institutions which in the folly of our wisdom we had cast aside. For nearly ten years we devoted ourselves, the very best of our days to works of philanthropy. Less than a year since, finding our schemes for benefiting the world to be worse than useless, to bring about the same results, we identified ourselves again with the Whig party.

We think we bring to our present position a most valuable experience: an experience, to us worth more than all the untried theories extant, in uniting our interest with that of the Whig party, we by no means regard it as perfect Human institutions from their origin have in themselves the seeds of imperfection We regard it, however, as based upon a practical and comprehensive view of man, of human nature and human institutions, and capable, as far as human infirmities will admit, of spreading its broad arms of protection around society, and uniting, in harmony and fellowship, its extremes. Believing this, we shall give it, most cordially, our feeble assistance.

The New-York Daily Tribune then blasts an article from another paper in their issue of August 31, 1847 on page 2:

The Express doing the Critical.

In a recent notice of Briancourt’s ‘Organization of Labor,’ the Express took occasion to say that

“All of them [Social Reformers] directly or indirectly, and most of them avowedly, attempt to destroy belief in the Christian religion. The large mass of the Communists, (we believe we have the right word,) from Robert Owen and Fanny Wright down, are open denunciators of Christianity.”

In reply to this, we stated the facts that the first Christian Church was thoroughly Communist (see Acts, ii, 44,) and that every Communist society now existing in this Country or anywhere else, so far as we have knowledge, is emphatically Christian–including the Shakers, Economy, Zoar, Ebenezer, &c. There are infidels who are members of Clubs that talk in favor of Communism, but every successful effort at practical Communism has been uniformly Christian, and generally of the faith termed Evangelical or Orthodox. How much better they are on this account is not now in question; the simple fact stands in striking contrast to the random gabble of the Express. Yet that paper returns to the charge on Saturday in the following terms:

“The discovery that the first disciples, in Acts, or that the Shakers are Fourierites, will be new to the world, and would make St. Peter himself laugh outright. But if it be true that the first converts and the Shakers are Fourierites, what becomes of the claims of Fourier to the discovery? the Tribune contends, or recommends a work which contends, that Fourier discovered “at the commencement of this century a new social science!” Now, it seems, it is only Shakerism? And the world has been called upon by these European quacks, and by The Tribune in particular, to advocate Shakerism under the names of Social Science, and Assiciation, and a hundred other humbug names. * * * This slander on Shakerism, by trying to identify it with Fourierism, is too false, however, not to be rebuked.”

That the Express, chased out at one hole, runs in at another, and chatters away about the Shakers, &c. not being Fourierites, as though we had ever said they were! Communists was its own chosen term, in order to lug in ‘Robert Owen and Fanny Wright,’ of whom both have been and the former certainly is a Communist, while neither ever was or pretended to be a ‘Fourierite,’–quite the contrary. It is the dodging from one thing to another that the Express contrives to keep itself in countenance and gabble on.

Once more, then, let us say–and need we repeat it?–Associationists are NOT Communists–far from it. Fourier and all his followers are utterly hostile to Communism, proclaming that ‘Community of Property is the grave of Individual Liberty.’ True, they admit and war against many of the same evils exposed and denounced by Communists, but their plans for redressing them are radically different. They hold that every individual should be owner of the material wealth created by his own labor, or bequeathed to him by those who have fairly acquired it. They hold that he who can by strength, or skill, or genius, accomplish or earn in one day as much as ten common men, has a clear right to a proportionate excess of product, and that individual ambition or acquisition need not and, under proper conditions, does not conflict with general comfort and well being. They agree with the Communists in affirming that Society, or the State, should bring within reach of each individual thorough Education with ample Sustenance up to the time that he is able to earn for himself, and afterward Opportunity to Labor, but, while Communists affirm absolutely the right of all men to a share of the good things of this life, Associationists maintain that a man who will not work has no clear right to eat. What Associationists demand is for every one a fair chance, and the Organization of Labor which shall secure the greatest practicable product of industry generally, with perfect justice in distribution and economy in consumption.–We do not expect the Express to publish this exposition, but is it too much to ask it to keep it in memory?

What is claimed as the discovery of Fourier is his plan of Industrial and Domestic Association, harmonizing Liberty with Order, rendering Industry Attractive, and blending Community of Interest with Individuality of Possession–in short, securing the advantages of Communism and Isolation and avoiding the disadvantages of each. Such is the Social Science of the ‘Fourierists’ so called, which is utterly unknown to Shakers or any other Communists, Can this be misunderstood?

Then there’s this interesting article from The Examiner out of Louisville, KY. on October 23, 1847, page 2, which proves the point attempted to be made quite thoroughly. (Keep in mind that this is one democrat calling another “communist“):

“Stick to it!”

The ultra perpetualist papers of the South though democratic “dotest,” as one of them says, the democracy of the Free States. A leader before us, in an able Southern Journal, decleares its alienation. “The Southern democracy” it says “have little real sympathy and few points in common with the Northern democracy.” And in response to this, other papers of the same ilk exclaim heartily “Stick to that doctrine, and the South is safe.”

The Charleston (S. C.) News talks after this fashion:

“The Southern Democracy have little real sympathy, and few points in common, with Northern Democracy. There may be motive of party expediency, tot none of permanent connection between them. The Democrats of the North have frequently blended themselves with anti-social tenets and the doings of ultra reformers, which Southern Democrats have never sanctioned or upheld. The position of the latter forbids this. Their scheme of Southern domestic policy, the whole frame-work of its social organization, places them in social opposition to, however at times in political association, with Northern Democrats. Besides general causes of alienation, the whole tendency of Northern democracy is subversive of the foundations on which repose the security of the South. The institutions which are most cherished at the South bend before the popular or Democratic impulses at the North. The judicial tenure of office is more open to change than at the South. It is there that the propagandists of infidelity have their theatres of display and influence, and are recruited from the ranks of Northern Democracy. It is there Anti-Renters, Socialists, Communists, and the entire tribe of ultra reformers, in Church and State, congregate and find audiences. In the South, all this is reversed. The Southern Democrats not only respect the rights of property, and the institutions by which they are guarded, among themselves, but are willing to follow the lessons of the Constitution, In respecting those rights among those with whom they are, under that Constitution, politically associated. Thus, then, is a broad ineffaceable line drawn, from circumstances, between the Democracy of the South and the Democracy of the North.”

So then, “party expediency” is all that sometimes bind the North and the South together! But we dot down these doings to let our democratic friends in the mid-slave States know how far their brethren in the South go. They will reflect upon the subject. They will see and say whether there is “an ineffaceable line” drawn between the democracy of the South and the North.

The Daily Crescent, out of New Orleans, LA. had the following in their March 15, 1848 Morning edition:

The Journal du Havre of the 8th, contains the following: “A colony of Communists, composed of 75 persons of all professions, uniformly clad, passed through the town to-day, and embarked in the American vessel Rome, bound for New Orleans. It is called, the Icarian Colony, and is going out to settle upon, clear and cultivate a tract of land of 4,000,000 acres, on the Red river, in the State of Texas, which has been bought by the Society, the head of which, M. Cabet, remains in France. They live completely in common, with order and economy. and call each other brothers. They are furnished with all the necessary tools and implements for their undertaking.”

And here is another from the The Daily Crescent, out of New Orleans, LA. had the following in their March 31, 1848 Morning Edition on page 3:

The “Communists.” —A large number of this body, who seek a new home, went up yesterday on the steamboat Monterey. They were comely in appearance, and seemed to be determined to do all that was right. We never saw a more cleanly, tidy party than the Communists. They stepped from the wharf to the sides of the steamboat, with all the energy of those who knew and felt that “Freedom’s land was theirs!”

[And from all appearances, it sure does seem that the communists were right. Because the rapid deterioration of our rights started not long after….]

We then have the following advertisement in the Carroll Free Press, out of Carrollton, Ohio, on June 23, 1848, page 3:

HERALD OF TRUTH.

Prospectus Of The Fourth Volume.

The Herald was commenced for a free publication. This merit it has maintained to the present time; no one can say be has been unable to get his views communicated through its pages, in consequence of their opposition to those of its conductor. In this, the Herald is a true type of western spirit, which is embodied in the lines of a Western Poet–

“If a free thought seek expression,

Speak it boldly–speak it all.”

Yes, my brother, of whatever name, creed, or party, you can speak freely here. Here is one place for you, where the air does not savor of any rankly intolerant odor, and where man does not attempt to interpose between you and your Creator. Who dares say he is true, and his brother is false? God is the only judge!

If you have any proposition for ameliorating the social condition of mankind, come and give it utterance. Fourierists, Communists, Icarians, and Utopians, come here and we will do you good.

If you have any new or old religious views to present, come also–no one is excluded.

If you have any political doctrine to advocate in manly way, come along, and you shall be heard, Whig, Democrat, or Liberty man–no matter who.

There is only one condition–that is, brevity and perspicuity of style–with this, all can be heard.

Who, then, wishes to hear all, and judge between them? Let him seek the Herald of Truth. Who would do away with all parties and sects? Let him cherish the spirit of the Herald, and all will melt in to one benevolent Brotherhood. Who sympathizes strongly with his fellow beings, and would confer with those who are toiling for human good? Lei him join and encourage us in the work of human redemption. The Herald shall be a link to bind all parties.

The saving power of a true education should not be overlooked, for, after all, no good can be hoped for man, unless it be sought in the fuller, truer development of the human mind. Mind is above all, and must be prepared for greater happiness before it can enjoy it. Education is the equalizer of man, the destroyer of aristocracy, selfishness and monopoly. The people must therefore be educated, and the Herald cannot overlook this great interest.

A benevolent, religious faith, a lively and cheerful philosophy, and an elevating-Literature, shall characterize this periodical. Science and Art shall also be represented.

The Herald of Truth is published monthly in Cincinnati each number containing 80 octavo pages, making to volumes per year of 480 pages each. Terms: single copy, $2,50; 4 copies for 9; 6 copies for 12; 10 copies for 16; and 12 copies for 18. L.A. HINE, Editor.

Here’s another article out of The Daily Crescent in New Orleans, in their Morning edition of July 10, 1848, on page 3:

What A Pity.–There are three or four settlements of the German Communists on the Llano,* numbering nearly one hundred, who are said to be very intelligent and enterprising. At present they have no women among them.

[* – The Llano Estacado which is that part of the High Plains south of the Canadian River in northwest Texas and eastern New Mexico(?)]

And here we have an extract from an article in the Baltimore Commercial Journal, And Lyford’s Price-Current, on Saturday Morning, July 22, 1848, in the Weekly Commercial Journal section – page 31. Which provides ample warning about the communist philosophy in very good detail. As well as proving what the ultimate goal of the communists and socialists here in America have in store for us:

Baltimore Commercial Journal, And Lyford’s Price-Current, “It is not at all surprising that under these circumstances, these men should have taken up arms against the government which had so cruelly deceived and betrayed them. . . . In the view of certain members of the Provisional Government, belonging more or less closely to the Socialist or Communist school”, July 22, 1848

From the Saturday Morning Visitor, City of Warsaw, Missouri, on October 21, 1848, we have the following from page 2:

A settlement of French Communists, at the Cross Timbers, have suffered a good deal during the summer, from fever and ague, of which they have much horror, and many of these settlers are leaving the colony and moving to New Orleans.

The Daily Crescent out of New Orleans then has the following in their October 28, 1848 Morning edition on page 2:

Communists for New Orleans —The Journal du Havre of the 27th ult., has the following:

“M. Cabet* arrived here this morning by the railroad, at the head of a column of forty or fifty communists, who are to embark shortly for New Orleans, in the Bremen ship Victoria, captain Harlem. M. Cabet himself, whatever the Paris journals may say, is not yet disposed to take his departure for the land of promise, and is come to Havre only to superintend the arrangements for the passage of his disciples.

  • – Étienne Cabet, (Jan. 1, 1788 – Nov. 9, 1856), was a French philosopher and utopian socialist. He was the founder of the Icarian movement His goal was to replace capitalist production with workers cooperatives. He became the most popular socialist advocate of his day, with a special appeal to artisans were being undercut by factories. Cabet led groups of emigrants to found utopian communities in Texas and Illinois. However his work was undercut by his many feuds with his own followers. He was educated as a lawyer, and became a government official, procureur-général, in Corsica, representing the government of Louis Philippe, after having headed an insurrectionary committee and participated actively in the July Revolution of 1830. However he was dismissed from this position for his attack upon the conservatism of the government in his Histoire de la révolution de 1830. In 1831, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in France as the representative of Côte d’Or. He sat with the extreme radicals. Due to his bitter attacks on the government he was accused of treason in 1834 and fled to England, seeking political asylum. Influenced by Robert Owen, he wrote Voyage et aventures de lord William Carisdall en Icarie (“Travel and Adventures of Lord William Carisdall in Icaria”) (1840), which depicted a utopia in which a democratically elected governing body controlled all economic activity and closely supervised social life. The nuclear family remained the only other independent unit. Icaria is the name of the fictional country and ideal society he describes. The success of this book prompted him to take steps to realize his Utopia. In 1839, Cabet returned to France to advocate a communitarian social movement, for which he invented the term communisme. Cabet’s notion of a communal society influenced other socialist writers and philosophers, notably Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Some of these other writers ignored Cabet’s Christian influences, as described in his book Le vrai christianisme suivant Jésus Christ (The real Christianity according to Jesus Christ, in five volumes). This book described Christ’s mission to be to establish social equality, and contrasted primitive Christianity with the ecclesiasticism of Cabet’s time to the disparagement of the latter. It also contained a popular history of the French Revolutions from 1789 to 1830. In 1841 he revived the Populaire (originally founded by him in 1833), which was widely read by French workingmen, and from 1843 to 1847 he printed an Icarian almanac, a number of controversial pamphlets and the book on Christianity mentioned above. There were probably 400,000 adherents of the Icarian school. In 1848, Cabet gave up on the notion of reforming French society. Instead, after conversations with Robert Owen and Owen’s attempts to found a commune in Texas, Cabet gathered a group of followers from across France and traveled to the United States to organize an Icarian community. They entered into a social contract, making Cabet the director-in-chief for the first ten years, and embarked from Le Havre, February 3, 1848, to take up land on the Red River in Texas. Cabet came later at the head of a second and smaller band. Texas did not prove to be the Utopia looked for, and, ravaged by disease, about one-third of the colonists returned to France. The remainder moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, to a site recently vacated by the Mormons, in 1849. Because of the improved location, it developed into a successful agricultural community. By 1855, the Nauvoo Icarian community had expanded to about 500 members with a solid agricultural base, shops, schools, and a newspaper. Amidst this success, however, Cabet was forced to return to France in May 1851 to settle charges of fraud brought up by his previous followers in Europe. When he returned in July 1852, the community was suffering economically, and a split developed regarding the work division and food distribution. In attempts to save the community upon his return, Cabet issued a series of edicts; he forbade “tobacco, hard liquor, complaints aobut the food, and hunting and fishing ‘for pleasure’.” Demanding absolute silence in workshops and submission to him rubbed the Icarians the wrong way and internal problems arose. After disputes within the Nauvoo community, Cabet was expelled and he went to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1855, where he died the following year, but not before he pulled the Nauvoo Icarians to the local court, petitioning the legislature to repeal the act that incorporated the community into the state. The last Icarian colony at Corning disbanded in 1898. The communists did indeed return, well supplied and in larger numbers. According to The Daily Crescent, New Orleans, Friday Morning, December 1, 1848. Volume I. . . . . . Number 233. Pg. 3: Icarian Colony .—We mentioned some weeks since that the French colonists who settled in the Cross Timbers last year, had become discouraged and were about to return to France. It appears, however, that another colony, with more ample means, and of superior numbers, is soon to succeed them. It is stated that the third pioneer division of the Icarian Colony, under the guidance of M. Mazet, has started from Havre for the colony in Texas. The next division was to follow them in October. This company will be under the direction of M. Pepin. The colonists are well supplied with fire arms, provisions, etc., and will take with them a quantity of grain, garden seeds and agricultural implements. They will also bring some choice shepherd dogs. We infer from this that they intend to engage in the raising of sheep.

[More like they intended to make American citizens “sheep”.]

We then have the following warning from the New Orleans Republican, (Official Journal Of The State Of Louisiana), on Sunday, October 3, 1875. Pg. 4:

The Commercial would prefer a French prince, perhaps—a Bourbon or a Bonaparte. That nation, having had the supreme happiness of an Emperor, was reduced to bondage, shorn of rich provinces, and held to heavy ransom. The miserable people rose in communism and were slain by thousands. The government which succeeded the empire is at this time distracted by the most violent conflicts, and no one can predict peace of a country in which so many opposite elements seem arming for war.

The following should help open the eyes of all as to how real the danger actually was and is:

Letter from Chicago.

THE COMMUNE.

Chicago, April 26, 1878.

To the Editor of the Free Press and Times:

There is a very serious prospect of another Communist war in our city, at no distant day, and of much more formidable proportions than that of last Summer, which caused so much loss of life and damage to property.

The facts, so far as your correspondent is enabled to make them public, are these:

For some months, the police authorities have been aware that there were numerous Communistic organizations throughout the city, and at the city election, held the first Tuesday of this present month, they came forward with sufficient strength to elect their Aldermen in both the 13th and 17th wards. Previous to that day their movements had been secret, but since the result of that election, they have grown bolder, and now their leaders assert that they have the same right to bear arms as the organized militia.

For several weeks they have been secretly drilling in small squads, in various halls stables and cellars, and within the past week have been forming into companies. Last Sunday morning, at a very early hour, a large body of these men was discovered drilling on the open drairies, west of the city. The organization numbers from 6,000 to 10,000, and it is positively ascertained that over two thousand of them are armed with guns, many of which are the Henry-Martini breech-loading rifles, and a communist leader is known to be now in New York purchasing arms and ammunition for this city. Major General A.C. Ducat, commanding the State troops, says: I do believe this subject is graver one than most people are aware of; it is one of very serious consideration.” The Chicago Times says:

There is no doubt whatever that at the first intimation of a break between laborer and employer, the communists stand ready with their guns to enforce their ideas. Nothing short of a complete revolution in the employment of labor will satisfy them. There must be no employer but the laborer himself. Co-operation in all branches of business is his dream, and he will attempt to realize it by force, and soon, too.

The creed of these men [i]s that “property is robbery,” and the industrious and thrifty must distribute the accumulated profits of their labor among those who will not work or save. When the next riot comes, instead of a mob, the authorities will have to confront an army, sufficiently equipped and drilled and commanded by persons who have acquired skill and knowledge in the military service of France and Germany.

The Superintendent of Police says that the Communists are drilling in “circle” of twelve, so as to avoid exciting alarm, and that a great many of them have arms,–shot-guns, revolvers, Enfield rifles, Springfield rifles, etc., quite a number, who were soldiers, having the guns they had during the rebellion. He has detectives among them, who attend their meetings and know all their plans, and, while they are peace able and law-abiding now, they are liable to

BREAK LOOSE IN A MOMENT AND MAKE THINGS LIVELY.

He deplores the fact that the police force is without guns, saying it is impossible to protect the people in case of a riot unless every man has a repeating rifle. The Departments of Boston, New York, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Louisville. in truth, in every large city, are armed and drilled, while Chicago is the only large city in the country whose police force is at the mercy of a prepared mob. The men now have no encouragement to risk their lives, being poorly paid and badly cared for by the city; and, besides, there are less than 350 to look after 500,000 people. “The citizens of Chicago,” said he, yesterday afternoon, “do not realize the extent of the mine under their feet, or they would make preparations for the explosion when it comes.” A reporter told him of a subscription in the Board of Trade, and asked how the money could be most advantageously used. “In buying guns.” was the reply.

A Communist leader who was interviewed stated that the Socialist party was working now under the instructions of a National Executive Committee, whose headquarters are at Cincinnati. A circular issued to the different Sections of the country, some four months ago, advised the various committees to organize companies in each city, town, and hamlet, where it was possible, throughout the United States. In this State, Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, California and Massachusetts, this has been carried out to the letter. It is claimed that in New York city there are twenty battalions organized, having an enrolled membership of over 16,000 men, largely composed of Poles, Bohemians, Scandinavians, Germans, Frenchmen, and a few Irish, under the lead of the notorious Megy and Schwab. In California the best organization exists. Pittsburg is the armory for the party. The guns and ammunition that they possess, it is claimed, are stored there, because, the leaders hold, “that the boys there know how to use them.”

It is claimed that the riots of last Summer were started prematurely, but this time there is to be no failure. The work is to commence in Chicago at a given signal, when simultaneously Schwab and Kearney and the other leaders will gather their hosts together, and the work of carnage and destruction commence.

Our city is in a very poor condition to put down any serious uprising, as the police force has been greatly reduced on account of the serious financial embarrassment of the Municipal Treasury. We have perhaps two thousand volunteer militia and police–ready for service. These are manifestly insufficient for the task which may at any moment be imposed upon them. The “reserve militia” number at least fifty thousand men, but they are not organized, equipped, or drilled. There may be some exaggeration as to the purposes of the Communists; but that we have a very numerous “dangerous class” here is beyond question.

Yours, J.N.H.

[Burlington Weekly Free Press, Burlington, VT., Friday Morning, May 10, 1878.Vol. LI. New Series, Vol. XXIV. Number 46. Pg. 1]

Here’s another article from the same period as the above:

Public Ledger, “They number many thousands, and include what are regarded as the most dangerous elements of our heterogeneous population. . . . or even checking these manifestations of the communistic spirit. It is conceded that these men have a lawful right to band together in secret, to bear arms and to drill, and that a criminal intention cannot be assumed in advance of criminal acts….”, May 10, 1878

We then have the following from the home of ‘socialism‘ in America; Chicago:

The Ottawa Free Trader, “The provision was mainly directed against the Chicago communists and agrarians, who were known to be secretly organizing into military companies and drilling and arming themselves preparatory, it was feared, to some signal communistic outbreak, like the great riots of 1877. . . . naturally encountered the fiercest opposition of those organizations, and contending that it was in contravention of the great constitutional right of all citizens to bear arms. . . . an agreed case before Judge Barnard, one of the Chicago circuit judges, who now decides against the law, or at least that portion of it which we have quoted. He declares it to be unconstitutional and that all men who please may arm themselves….”, Sept. 6, 1879

Even more from communist Chicago:

Daily Globe, “The law in question punishes heavily any body of men bearing arms who [d]o not possess authority from the State. This the judge decides is in contravention of the provision of the federal constitution which declares that the right of the citizen to bear arms shall not be denied or abridged, and hence is void and of no effect. The decision is no doubt a proper one, yet because it may afford the communists of that city a chance to organize, the papers are abusing the judge who formulated it.”, Sept. 6, 1879

And now for some more recent facts:

Uncle Sam “Padlocked”, “In 1924, a group of Socialists, Communists and “Left Wing Liberals” . . . Shall we surrender or shall we fight?”, Aug. 1, 1931

Americanism Versus Communism, Hon. Patrick J. Hurley, Congressional Record, July 4, 1935

Shall Communists Rule America?, “More Communists in U. S. Than in Russia”, Jan. 26, 1936

Current Communist Goals, Congressional Record – House of Representatives, “15. Capture one or both of the political parties in the United States.”, Jan. 10, 1963

Analysis Of Strategic Threats In The Current Decade (2000-2010) By Joel M. Skousen