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Historical news articles concerning our right to keep and bear arms:

The planters were careless with their arms, never using their swords, and their fire-arms only for game.

[A New And Comprehensive Gazetteer Of Virginia, 1621.]

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£1,000 to be laid out in arms, ammunition, &c. of which each “Christian tytheable” is to have one “firelock, musket, one socket, bayonet fired thereto, one cartouch box, eight pounds bullet, and two pounds powder.

[A New And Comprehensive Gazetteer Of Virginia, 1720.]

If a time of public contention shall hereafter arrive, the firm and ardent friends to liberty may know the length to which they can push their noble opposition, on the foundation of the laws. Should their country’s cause impel them further, they will be acquainted with the hazard, and using those arms which Providence has put into their hands, will make a solemn appeal to “the power above.”

[Tench Coxe, An American Citizen IV, PHILA. INDEP. GAZETTEER, Oct. 21, 1787, reprinted in 13 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY, supra note 57, at 431, 433.]

(Mr. Coxe was a leading proponent of the Constitution and Bill of Rights and an American political economist and a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress in 1788-1789. He was appointed revenue commissioner by President George Washington on June 30, 1792).

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It was absolutely necessary to carry arms for fear of pirates, &c. and … their arms were all stamped with peace, that they were never to be used but in case of hostile attack, that it was in the law of nature for every man to defend himself, and unlawful for any man to deprive him of those weapons of self defence.

[Boston Independent Chronicle, Oct. 25, 1787.]

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There are other things so clearly out of the power of Congress, that the bare recital of them is sufficient. I mean “rights of conscience, or religious liberty ― the rights of bearing arms for defence, or for killing game ― the liberty of fowling, hunting and fishing.

[Winchester Gazette, (Virginia), Feb. 22, 1788.]

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Congress have no power to disarm the militia. Their swords, and every other terrible implement of the soldier, are the birthright of an American …. The unlimited power of the sword is NOT in the hands of either the federal or state government, but, where I trust in God it will ever remain, in the hands of the people.

[Tench Coxe, Pennsylvania Gazette, February 1788.]

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Address to the printers of throughout the United States: written by Tench Coxe, esq….

…You are to consider whether freedom of publication, extending to blasphemy, immorality, treason, sedition, malice, or scandal, does not destroy the inestimable benefits which result from the liberty of the press, This privilege is certainly essential to the existence of a free government; but it consists in avoiding to impose any previous restraints on publication, and not in refraining to censure or punish such things, as produce private or public injuries. Every freeman has a right to the use of the press: so he has to the use of his arms. But if his publications give an unmerited or deadly stroke to private reputation, or sap the foundations of just government, he abuses his privilege as unquestionably as if he were to plunge his sword into the bosom of a fellow citizen: and the good of society requires that each offence should be punished….

–PHILODEMOS. [Tench Coxe] [Pg. 181]

[THE AMERICAN MUSEUM: OR REPOSITORY OF ANCIENT AND MODERH FUGITIVE PIECES, &c. PROSE AND POETICAL. Volume IV. PHILADELPHIA: PRINTED BY MATHE CAREY. M.DCC.LXXXVIII. 1788.]

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Whereas civil rulers, not having their duty to the people duly before them, may attempt to tyrannize, and as military forces, which must be occasionally raised to defend our country, might pervert their power to the injury of their fellow citizens, the people are confirmed by the article [the Second Amendment] in their right to keep and bear their private arms.

[Tench Coxe, under pseudonym “A Pennsylvanian,” Philadelphia Federal Gazette, June 18, 1789.]

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That the said Constitution shall never be construed to authorize Congress to infringe the just liberty of the press or the rights of conscience; or to prevent the people of the United states who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms

[Samuel Adams, in “Phila. Independent Gazetteer”, August 20, 1789.]

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While the people have property, arms in their hands, and only a spark of nobilie spirit, the most corrupt Congress must be mad to form any project of tyranny.

[Reverend Nicholas Collin, Oct. 12, 1789, Fayetteville North Carolina Gazette.]

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The right of the people to keep and bear arms has been recognized by the General Government; but the best security of that right after all is, the military spirit, that taste for martial exercises, which has always distinguished the free citizens of these States…Such men form the best barrier to the liberties of America.

[Noah Webster, Gazette of the United States, October 14, 1789.]

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James Madison, Property: “If the United States mean to obtain or deserve the full praise due to wise and just governments, they will equally respect the rights of property, and the property in rights“, Mar. 29, 1792

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Your memorialists might conclude their petition with these observations, but the great importance of the proposed Law, not only in respect to the revenue and commercial prosperity of the United States, but as it may affect the right of every citizen to keep and bear arms will it is hoped, be their excuse for subjoining a few additional observations on the subject.

The inhabitants of the United States have immemorially claimed the right of possessing arms for the defence of their houses, their lives, and property; this privilege has neither been surrendered, nor abridged, and every citizen, whether at home or upon the ocean has believed that he might lawfully carry arms in self-defence. If this right be deemed important in the bosom of the state, where the laws and magistrates are ready to protect the citizen, how much more important must it be considered on the high seas, where every nation has a common jurisdiction, but nation an exclusive one, where every nation is bound to afford protection to the persons and property of its citizens, but nation has magistrates to grant it, where aggression is most frequent and the means of defence most necessary.

Signed, By order of the Corporation of the Chamber of Commerce. John Murray, President, New-York, 21st Dec. 1804.

[The Balance And Columbian Repository. Vol. IV….1805. Hudson, (New-York) Published By Harry Croswell. Pg. 14]

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Alexandria Daily Gazette, Commercial & Political, “We should not be surprised indeed, if the democrats of this district were to go to the books as they went to the town-meeting, with drums beating, colors flying muskets shouldered, and swords drawn . . . .”, May 29, 1812

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Oswego Palladium, “We do not hesitate to place arms into the hands of every free citizen. Indeed, the right to keep and bear arms, is especially guaranteed”, June 15, 1821

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The law was intended to inculcate the principle not only that every man should have the right to bear arms, but that it was his duty to prepare to defend himself and his country from wrong and oppression. . . . Hundreds of thousands of our countrymen have firelocks in their houses . . . and it has established by statute, and confirmed by habit, the principle that arms belong to freemen as a part of their political birthright. . . . No future legislation will ever venture to take weapons of defence out of the hands of the people of this country.–The attempt would lead to instant revolt against the Government. The law was devised by Washington, and the sages of our Revolution, for the express purpose of guarding against insidious legislation, which might here, as it has done elsewhere, disarm the people under pretexts of game laws or other devices, and leave them unprotected.

[Richmond Enquirer, May 8, 1840.]

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Judge Tenney pulled trigger soon after the parties had been stationed. His ball entered the body of his antagonists, a little above the hip, producing immediate death.

[Vermont Watchman & State Journal, Oct. 4, 1841.]

. . . the latter attempted to draw a pistol, when the former fired both barrels of his gun, charged with buckshot . . . the persons who witnessed the fight were unanimously of the opinion that Mason was perfectly justifiable, inasmuch as he acted entirely on the defensive.

[Baton Rouge Gazette, , March 30, 1844.]

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Many of them when they temporarily retreated, returned armed with fire arms . . . an attempt would be made to fire the Catholic church on Second street, many of the residents retired from their houses to it, with arms, determined to protect it at the hazard of their lives.

[Sunbury American And Shamokin Journal, May 11, 1844.]

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notwithstanding the Constitution explicitly guarantees to every citizen the “right to bear arms in his own defence.”

[The Mississippi Democrat. “The best Government is that which governs least.” Carrollton, Wednesday, February 11, 1846. Vol. II. No. 9. Pg. 3]

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. . . bearing all the features of a citadel; every man within its limits is under arms, and many of the boys are bearing huge pistols and knives upon their persons–numbers of the women, it is said, are keen for the right, and express themselves ready to bear arms. . .

[New-York Daily Tribune, Sept. 23, 1846.]

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This right “to keep and bear arms,” implies the right to use them–as much as a provision securing to the people the right to buy and keep food, would imply their right also to eat it.

[The Unconstitutionality Of Slavery by Lysander Spooner, 1847.]

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Fremont Weekly Freeman, “The constitution expressly secures to the people the right to bear arms”, April 17, 1852

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Republican Platform In New Jersey, “2. Resolved, That at this time the constitution of the United States is, by the combined efforts of a President . . . and of the advocates of the aggressions of slavery, rendered null, void, and of none effect, in those most sacred provisions which guaranty– 1. The right of the people to bear and keep arms.”, May 28, 1856

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Green-Mountain Freeman, “or should forbid the people to “bear arms” . . . would not these be unconstitutional?”, July 7, 1853

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Deny the right of the citizen ‘to bear armes.’ Trample on the constitutional guarantees of ‘freedom of speech and of the press.’ Learn if you are bent on provoking the lesson, that when you make freedom ‘treason’ and defence of domestic rights a ‘felony,’ you must expect to find ‘traitors’ enough and ‘felons’ enough to hurl you down from the public trust you have so long and so infamously abused.

[The Wyandot Pioneer, June 5, 1856.]

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New Jersey Anti-Nebraska Convention, “those most sacred provisions which guarantee–1. The right of the people to bear and keep arms.”, June 11, 1856

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Republican Platform, The right of the people to keep and bear arms has been infringed., June 17, 1856

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The Constitution of the United States secures to the people the right to bear arms: and it does this to enable them to protect themselves from violence at home as well as abroad. Self-defence is the first law of nature; and the government or the system, we care not what it is, which takes it away, is the most absolute of all possible despotisms.

[The Burlington Free Press, June 20, 1856.]

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Excitement In California, “but the authorities fearing an attack on that place, immediately removed him to the county jail, a much stronger building. He was brought out and placed in a hack, a loaded pistol in each hand, to intimidate the crowd who were after him”, July 4, 1856

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. . . while the Free State men are driven away, and armed bands of Missourians and Carolinians, as will be seen in the news from Kansas, this week, are guarding every avenue to the territory, and driving back Northern men, if they choose to go in companies and with arms, as all emigrants to new territories have usually gone in all past time, and, as the experience of this settlement shows, is the only safe way to go now. . .

[The Indiana American, July 11, 1856.]

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The Daily Gazette, “BY WHAT AUTHORITY does the President instruct him to take arms from the hands of the people, or to prevent them entering the Territory?”, July 12, 1856

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2. Resolved, That at this time the constitution of the United States is, by the combined efforts of a President, destined to an immortality of infamy, and of the advocates of the aggressions of slavery, rendered null, void, and of none effect, in those most sacred provisions which guaranty–1. The right of the people to bear and keep arms.

[The Daily Union, (Washington, D.C.) July 12, 1856, “Slave” labor Vs. “Free” labor]

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Kansas . . . But come what may, we can only “trust in God and keep our powder dry.” . . . American citizens have a constitutional right to bear arms and to take arms with them when they emigrate to Kansas, should they see proper. . . . Be they from the North or South, no one here questions the right of men to take the necessary steps for their own defense. . . . I suppose no sensible man would ask that a person whose dearest rights, whose property and life are menaced, should be disarmed “in order to keep the peace.”

[New-York Daily Tribune, Sept. 1, 1856.]

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Free State men, under this same Buchanan Admisistration, have been denied their constitutional rights; the “freedom of speech, of the press;” the “right to be secure in their persons, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures,” and the “right to keep and bear arms,” without which they have been, and are now, unable to vindicate for themselves that other right, known to the law of this land, the law of Nature, and the law of Godthe right of Self-defence.

[True American, Steubenville, Wednesday, Ohio, October 29, 1856. Volume 2.–Number 43. Pg. 2]

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The public should understand that neither slaves nor free negros are, under any circumstances, allowed to keep or carry fire-arms of any description.

[The Western Democrat. Charlotte, N.C., Tuesday, May 21, 1861. Ninth Volume—Number 465. Pg. 1]

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The Daily Exchange, “It can never be necessary or proper to break the law for the purpose of maintaining itto commit a crime in order to prevent one.”, May 27, 1861

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We have understood that when Gen. Kirby Smith was at Lexington, that many arms were found and taken from the possession of negroes. . . . We do not desire to create any unnecessary alarm, but both Local and State organization should be had in reference to the advent of the 1st of January and the further Proclamation of the President, which is to change the status of the slave, and especially when they are invited by Lincoln to make practical efforts to secure their freedom.

Man loves power, and holds it with the grip of death, whether right or wrong; and it is the nature of man to abuse the power he wields, illy or justly gotten. Hence the carefully guarded provisions of the Constitution against its abuse. Hence the writ of habeas corpus–the freedom of speech and of the press–the right to bear arms. . . .

[The Dollar Weekly Bulletin, Nov. 27, 1862.]

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Shall the People Arm.

   The question is asked us by the citizens every day. What shall we do? Must we fight at home? These questions are not asked by Democrats alone, but many who have heretofore acted with the Republicans, and who voted for Mr. Lincoln. Our reply to all such, is, if you want to maintain your Government, W[a]shington says in peace prepare for war. He is good authority. And if you turn to the Constitution of the U.S. Art. 2. of Amendments. You find these words “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.”–I take it from this that it is Constitutional for Gov. Tod to distribute all the arms among the people, that belong to the people, & that can be spared to the people. The Government and the arms both belong to the people. As a matter of course if you buy your own armsyou have a clear constitution right to do soand bear thembeing responsible for the use you make of them.

[The McArthur Democrat, M’Arthur, Vinton County, Ohio, March 12, 1863. Vol. 11. No. 30. Pg. 2]

That the fundamental principles which distinguish the present administration are based upon ignorance and wickedness, and an entire aversion to the doctrine that “governments are instituted among men, deriving their just power from the consent of the poverned.” In attempting to abridge the freedom of speech and of the press, to deprive the people of the right to keep and bear arms. . . . That we utterly condemn the blundering policy of the Administration, which is desolating the land and blighting our National honor.

[The Indiana State Sentinel, May 6, 1863.]

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. . . tyranical and unconstitutional laws have been enacted and enforced–the rights of the people to Keep and bear arms has been infringed . . . it is our fixed purpose to bring the perpetrators of these atrocious outrages and their accomplices to a sure and condign punishment hereafter.

[The Holmes County Farmer, Aug. 20, 1863.]

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The right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringe[d],” says the Constitution. . . . the coming elections . . . may embolden our rulers to take that right from the people. Beware in time!

[The Ohio Democrat, Sept. 25, 1863.]

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In the Constitution and the Constitutions of the several States the people consecrated and declared certain great rights as fundamental, inalienable and imperishable; among these, and chiefest among them are . . . the right to keep and bear arms, and to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences. These are absolute and vital rights according to our system of government which are never to be infringed. This wise arrangement forms the palladium of American Liberty.

[The Ottawa Free Trader, April 2, 1864.]

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Civil War Invoked. . . . Therefore, the next move of the conspirators will be to deprive Democrats of the constitutional right to bear arms and their forcible subjection to the will of fanaticism. [And the democrats have been doing it to us every since…]

[Joliet Signal, April 12, 1864.]

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He has denied to the people the right to bear arms for their own defense. . . . He has annulled every constitutional guarantee for the protection of the citizen, and subjected him to the irrepressible tyranny of military violence.

[The Spirit Of Democracy, Aug. 10, 1864.]

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It asserted the right of the people to bear arms–a right guaranteed to them by the Constitution, and it enjoined obedience to the laws. Could not and should not the people resist unjust aggression?

[Daily State Sentinel, Aug. 16, 1864.]

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Cleveland Morning Leader, “Every man has a right to bear arms.–The right is not sectional or restricted. It exists in Georgia just as much as in Indiana”, Aug. 26, 1864

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Each member of the League shall provide himself with at least one good shot-gun, musket or rifle and a sufficient supply of ammunition for the effective use of the same.

[The Plymouth Weekly Democrat, Sept. 1, 1864.]

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That would be to recount all the instances of the violation of law; the wanton trampling upon the rights of persons . . . the usurpation of dangerous powers not known to the Constitution . . . and the interference with the right of the citizen to bear arms.

[The Daily Ohio Statesman, Sept. 15, 1864.]

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Give us what the Constitution in its original purity intended; to be our own judges of our rights and our wrongs–to have the right to assemble in our sovereign capacities for the making of our laws–the free and inalienable right of life and liberty–the right to have and bear arms–the right to hold property and to give title–and holding us properly amenable for the right use of those blessings.

[The Tri-Weekly Journal, June 30, 1865.]

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. . . forbidding the people to purchase arms . . . notwithstanding the Constitution declares the right to bear arms shall not be infringed. All security to person and property was gone. In this state of things many reasoned thus: If there is no law for officers, if they are lawless, why may we not follow their example? Some said we most do it to protect ourselves, as the law gives no protection. Thus did the officials introduce lawlessness and crime, which still prevails….

[The Indianapolis Daily Herald, Nov. 6, 1865.]

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[The Evening Telegraph, Philadelphia, Saturday, February 2, 1867. Vol. VII.—No. 29. Pg. 4]

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. . . We find nothing in this to disapprove. We should deprecate the necessity of a resort to force, but we pour scorn upon the craven, the pusillanimous notion that freemen may not vindicate their rights by armsCourage to resist oppression is the ultimate security for good government. This, at least, was the opinion of our brave forefathers when they took care to provide in the Constitution that “the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.” The right to bear arms implies the right, on a sufficient provocation, to use them. The only debatable question relates to the sufficiency of the provocation. . . .

  [The Evening Telegraph, Philadelphia, Thursday, July 16, 1868. Vol. X–No. 13. First Edition Pg. 2]

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Good fire-arms are trusty friends in times of danger, July, 17, 1868

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. . . It behooves those in authority to ponder well before they take a step that may recoil upon their own heads. A people goaded on to desperation may turn and smite their persecutors. We do not wish to be understood as counseling armed resistance to law. Our voice shall ever be raised for peace. We advise our people to bear and forbear, be calm and patient under all circumstances, but be prepared. The laws of your State guarantee to you the right to bear arms in self defense. No power upon earth can gainsay this right. Self-preservation is the first law of nature.

While we believe the act organizing a State Guard is in violation of the plainest provisions of the Constitution, we do not propose to offer any resistance to its execution. But we will say that he who believes that our people will stand quietly by and see here in our midst a repetition of the outrages which have been committed in Arkansas, must be a fool or insane.

Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God,” is a maxim just as true to-day as it was when our fathers resisted British oppression. We still have that power of resistance left as, and in defense of our live and property it will crush the faction of unscrupulous men who rule our State between the upper and nether mill-stone of its power. Then let that power which rests its broad base on two millions of people be our shield and sword.

[Public Ledger, Memphis, Tennessee, Friday Evening, January 29, 1869. Vol. VII. No. 127. Pg. 2]

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there are no laws of the State preventing any negro from keeping or carrying fire-arms
Excerpted from the article: Carpet-Baggers’ Stock In Trade.

[The Weekly Clarion. Jackson, Mississippi, Thursday, May 13, 1869. Vol. XXXII–No. 25. Pg. 2]

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The Memphis Daily Appeal, “The Constitution of the United States gives to every citizen the right to carry arms in his own defense”, June 1, 1871

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The Ottawa Free Trader, “called this a violation of their constitutional right, guaranteed to every citizen, to own and bear arms”, Sept. 19, 1874

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Ammunition To The Militia.–We learn that Frank Belcher, the militia captain at Bordeaux has been drawing ammunition at Abbeville–he say some two hundred rounds, but other parties say some three or four thousand rounds. We think this is all wrong. The guns are distributed for the purpose of being used in drilling, and this is the only purpose for which they can be used except in aid of civil process. But for what purpose is the ammunition given? Each citizen has the right to bear arms and have ammunition but the State is not called upon to furnish them. We think it is time that this distribution of ammunition shall cease.

[The Abbeville Press And Banner, Abbeville, S.C., Wednesday, September 30, 1874. Volume XXII—No. 25. Pg. 2]

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The Difference.

The Democrats of Georgia and Louisiana band together and equip themselves with the most approved rifles, and feel hurt if any one questions their constitutional right to thus bear arms. But the exercise of the same right on the part of the Republicans, is looked upon as a conspiracy against the peace of the State, And to find a revolver or rifle in the possession of a colored man is sufficient evidence to hang the possessor to the limb of a tree or riddle him with bullets. This is Southern Democracy, that claims national honors at the hands of the people. If savage barbarism could win honors, Democracy would carry off the lion’s share.

[Lyon County Times. Silver City, Nevada, Oct. 30, 1874. Vol. 1. No. 51. Pg. 3]

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Thus they mean to protest, but to avoid rebellion, and as the right to bear arms and to freely meet in public assemblies is
sacred, if they act up to their promises they may annoy Kellogg and his party without laying themselves open to interference.

[The New York Herald. New York, Monday, December 14, 1874. Whole No. 13,993. Pg. 5]

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The attempt was then made to deprive the people of the constitutional right to keep and bear arms. This was frustrated by the events of the 14th September, where the citizens of Louisiana asserted their manhood, and taught their oppressors that the day had passed when the rights and liberties of the people could be trampled upon with impunity. . . .

[The New Orleans Bulletin. New Orleans, Friday, December 25, 1874. Volume I–No. 237. Page 2]

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This act is now in force and the police was used on the 14th September, 1874, to deprive our citizens of the right to keep and bear arms. The police had entered stores and seized guns and ammunition—-it had arrested individuals in the streets, who had arms in their hands.

[The New Orleans Bulletin. New Orleans, Sunday, January 3, 1875. Volume I–No. 243. Pg. 4]

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The Democratic Advocate, “the right to bear arms guaranteed every citizen by the Constitution of the United States”, Oct. 21, 1876

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 The Constitution of the United States expressly declares that the “right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.” In the face of this Dictator Grant is sending an army into South Carolina to disarm peaceable, law-abiding citizens, and this work is now going on. 
Cincinnati Enquirer.

   Yes, and when Lincoln, in 1861, did the same service for Union, Liberty and Freedom, the cry then went up as now, “this Dictator.” Now as then, it is the same hellish spirit of “rule or ruin” that animates the Democratic party, and for the good order and peace of the country it is a necessity now as then, that every true American should sustain the right by voting for Hayes and Wheeler.

[Gallipolis Journal, Gallipolis, Ohio, Thursday, October 26, 1876. Volume XLI. Number 50 Pg. 2]

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But in all countries where personal freedom is valued, however much each individual may rely on legal redress, the right of each to carry arms–and these the best and the sharpest for his own protection in case of extremity, is a right of nature indelible and irrepressible, and the more it is sought to be repressed the more it will recur.

[Commentaries On The Liberty Of The Subject, By James Paterson, 1877.]

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YELLOWSTONE PARK NOTES.

Forest Fires—Game,Tourists and the Park Well Protected—John Taney Honored— An Old Timer Nearly Starved—An Adventure in the Grand Canyon.

Sergeant Swan and Private Andrew Stewart, of Troop M, 1st U.S. cavalry,were stationed at Soda Butte soon after Capt. M. Harris assumed the duties of superintendent. Stewart informs me that he was ordered to find out, if possible, the origin and extent of the Ox-Bow and Tower falls fires. The former, he thinks, was caused by lightning, and the latter, being on the line of travel, might have started from a camp Fire. The fires were under headway several days before the troop came to the Park, and over sixty square miles of beautiful groves became a blackened desert. It was the most destructive fire that ever raged in the Park.

Hunting in the Park is now a matter of past history. Squads of men are constantly on the lookout all along the Park lines. Several parties have been taken in to headquarters for being found, with firearms, on the public highway. They were discharged on stating that they were merely on their way to neutral hunting ground, and on promising to keep the traveled road while carrying arms. . . .

[The Livingston Enterprise. Livingston, Montana, Saturday, January 1, 1887. Vol. 4 No. 31. Pg. 4]

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Still, it has at all times urged the arming of all the people.

[The Current, Jan. 16, 1886.]

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I point you to the constitution of your state and country to show that the people always have the right to bear arms in self-defense.–Attorney William W. Erwin, The Sylvester Critchlow trial, Pittsburg, Pa.

[St. Paul Daily Globe, St. Paul, Minn., Monday Morning, November 28, 1892. Vol. XIV. No. 333. Pg. 2]

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   J.B.–Every citizen of this State over the age of eighteen has the right to carry a revolver in any form or way he pleases, and every fine imposed by a Police Justice can be recovered by a suit at law. The Court of Appeals advised the Legislature when it passed section 412, forbidding the carrying of concealed firearms, that it was unconstitutional and the section was struck out even or the original edition of the Code. By the act of 1889, persons under the age of eighteen who carry in the street firearms without a license are guilty of a misdemeanor. The Aldermen of this city have no powers except such as are conferred by the legislature. The legislature have no power to prevent a man carrying a revolver, cannot give power to any one else to prevent him. The right to keep and bear arms may not be infringed.

[The Evening Edition World, New York, Thursday, November 23, 1893. Pg. 4]

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The Sun, New York, N.Y.P.D. Police Captain, “The Constitution guarantees to every citizen the right to bear arms”, Feb. 4, 1894

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The Austin Weekly Statesman, “the constitutional right of every citizen to have and carry arms”, Feb. 7, 1895

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Amendment to United States Constitution.

   “Act II. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall cot be infringed.”

   The militia of 1790, when the above was adopted, was very different from that of to-day. Every man, or most of them, owned a gun or pistol, and on muster day drilled with his fellows to repel a foe. It was only because of this individual, house-kept armament that America gained her freedom from King George III. No law infringing the bearing of arms, in view or out of view, would have been tolerated until the monopoly created by the late war had rendered many poor and desperate, that it was considered unsafe to trust them with arms. The people were first ground into poverty and then every possible restriction was adopted to prevent them from having anything to defend themselves against a foe meaner and greater, than King George III. Every law on the statute books of the states against men keeping and bearing arms is a violation of the fundamental law of the land and the very danger that Madison saw when he proposed that safeguard. Tyrants always found some excuse or means of disarming their subjects before they proceeded to plunder them. It was a great error in King George III that he did not put a tax on people owning guns and the American revolution would never have been heard of. All tyrants hesitate before they attack an armed people. The great safety of the Swiss republic to-day is that all its citizens have a full equipment of the best guns in their homes. They are furnished by the state and each man is given the custody of his equipment. Every man is therefore on an equal footing to defend himself and let a majority rule. There is nothing like the crime there as here in the United States, and no danger of a bad use of the gun is feared. But so careful are the tyrants of this monopoly-ridden nation of the people that they do not even allow the militia to take their guns home! Read the amendment, look at the conditions around you, and the great armament that will serve–who?–and make your own prognostications,–Coming Nation, April 13.

[The Advocate, Topeka, Kansas, April 17, 1895. Vol. VII., No. 16. Pg. 12]

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THREE ROBBERS BITE THE DUST

Tragic Sequel to a Bank Raid at Meeker, Colorado.
The Bandits Obtain About $1000, but Fail to Get Away With It.

HOT FIGHT WITH CITIZENS.

Three of the Latter Wounded–Over a Hundred Shots Fired During the Battle.

. . . But the robbers had miscalculated. They forgot the kind of stuff the people of Meeker are made of, and as they stepped through the door it was to find that the building had been surrounded by the townspeople, who were aroused by the shots, and the alternative of surrendering or fighting it out was presented to them. They raised their revolvers and commenced to fire immediately. Then commenced one of the most desperate of battles. Bullets cut the air, penetrated the buildings and hailed through the crowd. It is a wonder that more men were not killed. But the robbers were surrounded; they had fired the first shot and had to accept the consequences of their folly. . . .

. . . The first shot of the fusillade was fired at Deputy Sheriff William Clark. The bank officers and those in the store broke for cover. Guns were distributed among them, and the robbers, finding themselves alone, opened fire, shooting at everybody in sight. The people of the town commenced their work, and in less time than it takes to tell it about 100 shots were fired and three men fell to the ground. . . .

[The San Francisco Call, San Francisco, Thursday Morning, October 15, 1896. Volu[m]e MLXXX.–No. 137. Pg. 1]

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The People’s Palace Tragedy.

The lamentable accident at the Tabernacle, last night, may serve as a lesson on a whole lot of things: the recklessness of people regarding firearms, the evil of boys carrying pistols, the atrocity of dealers who sell firearms to boys, the
culpability of older persons who, seeing pistols in the hands of boys, fail to have them taken away. But, the thing of all others that it illustrates is the need of teaching every boy the proper way to handle weapons, not in order that he may kill; but in order that he may not kill, When he does not mean to do so.

Nine out of ten of the accidental fatalities from firearms come from mere ignorance of how to handle them. The present is obviously a case of the kind. If the boy Kuntz had known what to do with the pistol, which he was examining, it would not have gone off in his hands. But as it is the privilege of every American citizen to have arms, and as arms must be handled more or less, it should be the duty of someone to teach boys what their dangers are and how such dangers may be averted by a little care and skillful management.

This tragedy seems to have in it the minimum of blameworthyness. The boys should not have had pistols at all; but it appears that the pistol which went off belonged to the boy who was shot and not to the boy in whose hands it was at the time. The unloaded pistol of young Kuntz was in the hands of the boy who was killed. It is hard to see how the courts can fail to absolve Kuntz of all blame; but probably the tragedy will cast a shadow on his life.

[The Jersey City News. Jersey City, Friday, May 28, 1897. Last Edition, Vol. VIII–No. 2441. Pg. 2]

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the duty of teachers to instruct pupils in the common schools in the use of firearms . . .

[The Princeton Union, Princeton, Mille Lacs County, Minnesota, Thursday, January 26, 1899. Volume XXIII. No. 7. Pg. 4]

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